The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3; Williams, Cumming, Ntoumanis, Nordin-Bates, Ramsey, & Hall, 2012) is the most recent version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (Hall & Pongrac, 1983) and the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (Hall & Martin, 1997).
It is a 12-item questionnaire to assess individual’s ability to image four movements using:
- Internal visual imagery
- External visual imagery
- Kinesthetic imagery
The MIQ-3 has good psychometric properties, internal reliability, and predictive validity. It has a Flesch Reading Ease score of 72.3 and a Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level of 6.2.
The MIQ-3 now has been adapted for use in children aged 7-12 years (MIQ-C).
The MIQ-3 is available in English, and has also been translated into French, German, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish (please contact authors of the translated versions directly for the MIQ-3 in that language). We also welcome requests to translate the MIQ-3 into other languages.
Papers published that have used the MIQ-3:
Alikaj A, Büyükaslan A, Uğurlu S, et al (2018). The assessment of imagery ability in patients with familial mediterranean fever. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 77:1852.
Amorim, A., Travassos, B., & Mendes, P. (2018). Imagery ability in Boccia: Comparison among federate athletes from different medical sport groups. Motricidade, 13(4), 46-53. https://doi.org/10.6063/motricidade.11780
Bahmani, M., A. Diekfuss, J., Kharestani, M. (2019). Does motor imagery modality-dominance influence the effectiveness of attentional focus instructions. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 50(3), 253-271. https://doi.org/10.7352/IJSP.2019.50.253
Budnik-Przybylska, D., Szczypińska, M., & Karasiewicz, K. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Polish vesion of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3). Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 4(4). https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2016.63218
Castro, F., Osman, L., Di Pino, G., Vuckovic, A., Nowicky, A., & Bishop, D. (2021). Does sonification of action simulation training impact corticospinal excitability and audiomotor plasticity?. Experimental Brain Research, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-021-06069-w
Collet, C., El Hajj, M., Chaker, R., Bui-Xuan, B., Lehot, J. J., & Hoyek, N. (2021). Effect of motor imagery and actual practice on learning professional medical skills. BMC Medical Education, 21(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02424-7
Debarnot, U., Abichou, K., Kalenzaga, S., Sperduti, M., Piolino, P. (2015). Variable motor imagery training induces sleep memory consolidation and transfer improvements. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 119, 85-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2014.12.010
Gabbard, C. P., & Lee, J. (2014). A comparison of movement imagery ability self-report and imagery use in a motor task: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 9(1), 61-66.
Eaves, D. L., Behmer, L. P., & Vogt, S. (2016). EEG and behavioural correlates of different forms of motor imagery during action observation in rhythmical actions. Brain and cognition, 106, 90-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2016.04.013
Eaves, D. L., Haythornthwaite, & Vogt, S. (2014). Motor imagery during action observation modulates automatic imitation effects in rhythmical actions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00028
Daneshfar, A., Petersen, C. J., & Gahreman, D. E. (2021). The effect of 4 weeks motor imagery training on simulated BMX race performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1869801
Debarnot, U., & Guillot, A. (2014). When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery. Acta Psychologica, 149, 40-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.02.011
Debarnot, U., Perrault, A. A., Sterpenich, V., Legendre, G., Huber, C., Guillot, A., & Schwartz, S. (2021). Motor imagery practice benefits during arm immobilization. Scientific reports, 11(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88142-6
de Sousa Fortes, L., do Carmo, Y. A. F., Cruz, R. B. D. S. F., de Lima, E. T. P., & Mansur, H. N. (2017). Effect of imagery on free throw performance in young basketball players. Motricidade, 13(3), 4-12.
Dilek, B., Ayhan, C., & Yakut, Y. (2020). Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the movement imagery questionnaire-3: Its cultural adaptation and psychometric properties. Neurological Sciences and Neurophysiology, 37(4), 221. https://doi.org/10.4103/NSN.NSN_30_20
Di Rienzo, F., Martinent, G., Levêque, L., MacIntyre, T., Collet, C., & Guillot, A. (2017). The influence of gate start position on physical performance and anxiety perception in expert BMX athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-8. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2017.1303188
Kolářová, B., Richards, J., Ondráčková, H., Lippertová, K., Connell, L., & Chohan, A. (2021). The effect of motor imagery on quality of movement when performing reaching tasks in healthy subjects: A proof of concept. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2021.10.004
Kolbaşı, E. N., Ersoz Huseyinsinoglu, B., Erdoğan, H. A., Çabalar, M., Bulut, N., & Yayla, V. (2020). What are the determinants of explicit and implicit motor imagery ability in stroke patients?: a controlled study. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 37(2), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/08990220.2020.1741344
Marshall, B., & Wright, D. J. (2016). Layered Stimulus Response Training versus Combined Action Observation and Imagery: Effects on Golf Putting Performance and Imagery Ability Characteristics. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 11(1), 35-46. doi: 10.1515/jirspa-2016-0007.
McNeill, E., Ramsbottom, N., Toth, A. J., & Campbell, M. J. (2020). Kinaesthetic imagery ability moderates the effect of an AO+ MI intervention on golf putt performance: A pilot study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 46, 101610. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029219304406
Meers, R., Nuttall, H. E., & Vogt, S. (2020 – In press, pre-proof). Motor imagery alone drives corticospinal excitability during simultaneous action observation and motor imagery. Cortex. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.01.012
Mendes, P., Marinho, D., & Petrica, J. (2015). Comparison between genders in imagery ability in Portuguese basketball practitioners. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 15, 391-395.
Mendes, P. A. D., Marinho, D. A., Monteiro, D., Cid, L., & Petrica, J. (2019). The comparison of Imagery ability in elite, sub-elite and non-elite swimmers. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 19(2), 124-134. https://doi.org/10.6018/cpd.345891
Mendes, P. A., Marinho, D. A., Petrica, J. D., Silveira, P., Monteiro, D., & Cid, L. (2016). Tradução e Validação do Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) com Atletas Portugueses/Translation and Validation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) with Portuguese Athletes. Motricidade, 12(1), 149.
Nezam, S. E., IsaZadeh, H., Hojati, A., & Zadeh, Z. B. (2014). Comparison Ability of Movement Imagery perspectives in Elite, Sub-Elite and non Elite Athletes. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 8, 712-716.
Paravlić, A., Pišot, S., & Mitić, P. (2018). Validation of the Slovenian version of motor imagery questionnaire 3 (MIQ-3): Promising tool in modern comprehensive rehabilitation practice. Slovenian Journal of Public Health, 57(4), 201-210. https://doi.org/10.2478/sjph-2018-0025
Sariati, D., Zouhal, H., Hammami, R., Clark, C. C., Nebigh, A., Chtara, M., … & Ounis, O. B. (2021). Association between mental imagery and change of direction performance in young elite soccer players of different maturity status. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.665508
Scott, M., Taylor, S., Chesterton, P., Vogt, S., & Eaves, D. L. (2018). Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention. Disability and rehabilitation, 40(12), 1443-1451. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1300333
Seiler, B. D., Monsma, E. V., & Newman-Norlund, R. D. (2015). Biological Evidence of Imagery Abilities: Intraindividual Differences. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37(4).
Seiler, B. D., Newman-Norlund, R. D., & Monsma, E. V. (2017). Inter-individual neural differences in movement imagery abilities. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 153-163. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.02.007
Suryotrisongko, H., & Samopa, F. (2015). Evaluating OpenBCI Spiderclaw V1 Headwear’s Electrodes Placements for Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Motor Imagery Application. Procedia Computer Science, 72, 398-405. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.155
Robin, N., & Blandin, Y. (2021). Imagery ability classification: Commentary on «Kinaesthetic imagery ability moderates the effect of an AO+ MI intervention on golf putt performance: A pilot study» by McNeill et al.(2020). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 57, 102030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.102030
Robin, N., Coudevylle, G. R., Guillot, A., & Toussaint, L. (2020). French translation and validation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-third version (MIQ-3f). Movement & Sport Sciences-Science & Motricité. https://doi.org/10.1051/sm/2019035
Trapero-Asenjo, S., Gallego-Izquierdo, T., Pecos-Martín, D., & Nunez-Nagy, S. (2020). Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Spanish version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3). Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 51, 102313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2020.102313
Yunus, U. Ğ. U. R., Coşkun, H., & Şenyurt, A. Y. (2021). The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3: Reliability and validity study on Turkish sample. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 19(4), 145-156. https://doi.org/10.33689/spormetre.938945
Vesković, A., Koropanovski, N., Dopsaj, M., & Jovanović, S. (2019). Effects of a psychological skill training program on anxiety levels in top karate athletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 25(5), 418-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1517-869220192505173969
Williams, S. E. (2019). Comparing movement imagery and action observation as techniques to increase imagery ability. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 44, 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.05.005
Williams, S. E., & Cumming, J. (2011). Development and validation of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 416-440.
Williams, S. E., Cumming, J., & Edwards, M. G. (2011). Does the functional equivalence between movement imagery, observation, and execution influence imagery ability? Investigating different modes of MIQ-R delivery. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 555-564.
Williams, S. E., Cumming, J., Ntoumanis, N., Nordin-Bates, S. M., Ramsey, R., & Hall, C. (2012). Further validation and development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 621-646.
Williams, S. E., Cooley, S. J., & Cumming, J. (2013). Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 60-71.
Yoxon, E., Brillinger, M., & Welsh, T. N. (2021). Behavioural indexes of movement imagery ability are associated with the magnitude of corticospinal adaptation following movement imagery training. Brain Research, 1777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147764
Abstracts published that have used the MIQ-3:
Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2011). Athletes’ imagery ability predicts their use of observational learning. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, S12.
Williams, S. E., Guillot, A., Di Rienzo, F., & Cumming, J. (2013). Comparing measures of motor imagery ability: Self-report vs. mental chronometry. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, S120.
* If you have used the MIQ-3 and would like to add your citation to this list, please email J.Cumming@Bham.ac.uk.