The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3; Williams, Cumming, Ntoumanis, Nordin-Bates, Ramsey, & Hall, 2012) is the most recent version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire (Hall & Pongrac, 1983) and the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (Hall & Martin, 1997).

It is a 12-item questionnaire to assess individual’s ability to image four movements using:

  1. Internal visual imagery
  2. External visual imagery
  3. Kinesthetic imagery

The MIQ-3 has good psychometric properties, internal reliability, and predictive validity.  It has a Flesch Reading Ease score of 72.3 and a Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level of 6.2.

The MIQ-3 now has been adapted for use in children aged 7-12 years (MIQ-C).

The MIQ-3 is available in English, and has also been translated into French, German, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish (please contact authors of the translated versions directly for the MIQ-3 in that language).  We also welcome requests to translate the MIQ-3 into other languages.

Papers published that have used the MIQ-3:

Alikaj A, Büyükaslan A, Uğurlu S, et al (2018). The assessment of imagery ability in patients with familial mediterranean fever. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 77:1852.

Amorim, A., Travassos, B., & Mendes, P. (2018). Imagery ability in Boccia: Comparison among federate athletes from different medical sport groups. Motricidade, 13(4), 46-53. https://doi.org/10.6063/motricidade.11780

Bahmani, M., A. Diekfuss, J., Kharestani, M. (2019). Does motor imagery modality-dominance influence the effectiveness of attentional focus instructions. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 50(3), 253-271. https://doi.org/10.7352/IJSP.2019.50.253

Budnik-Przybylska, D., Szczypińska, M., & Karasiewicz, K. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Polish vesion of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3). Current Issues in Personality Psychology, 4(4). https://doi.org/10.5114/cipp.2016.63218

Castro, F., Osman, L., Di Pino, G., Vuckovic, A., Nowicky, A., & Bishop, D. (2021). Does sonification of action simulation training impact corticospinal excitability and audiomotor plasticity?. Experimental Brain Research, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-021-06069-w

Collet, C., El Hajj, M., Chaker, R., Bui-Xuan, B., Lehot, J. J., & Hoyek, N. (2021). Effect of motor imagery and actual practice on learning professional medical skills. BMC Medical Education, 21(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02424-7

Debarnot, U., Abichou, K., Kalenzaga, S., Sperduti, M., Piolino, P. (2015). Variable motor imagery training induces sleep memory consolidation and transfer improvements. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 119, 85-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2014.12.010 

Gabbard, C. P., & Lee, J. (2014). A comparison of movement imagery ability self-report and imagery use in a motor task: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 9(1), 61-66.

Eaves, D. L., Behmer, L. P., & Vogt, S. (2016). EEG and behavioural correlates of different forms of motor imagery during action observation in rhythmical actions. Brain and cognition, 106, 90-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2016.04.013

Eaves, D. L., Haythornthwaite, & Vogt, S. (2014). Motor imagery during action observation modulates automatic imitation effects in rhythmical actions. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2014.00028

Daneshfar, A., Petersen, C. J., & Gahreman, D. E. (2021). The effect of 4 weeks motor imagery training on simulated BMX race performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2020.1869801

Debarnot, U., & Guillot, A. (2014). When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery. Acta Psychologica, 149, 40-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2014.02.011

Debarnot, U., Perrault, A. A., Sterpenich, V., Legendre, G., Huber, C., Guillot, A., & Schwartz, S. (2021). Motor imagery practice benefits during arm immobilization. Scientific reports, 11(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88142-6

de Sousa Fortes, L., do Carmo, Y. A. F., Cruz, R. B. D. S. F., de Lima, E. T. P., & Mansur, H. N. (2017). Effect of imagery on free throw performance in young basketball players. Motricidade, 13(3), 4-12.

Dilek, B., Ayhan, C., & Yakut, Y. (2020). Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the movement imagery questionnaire-3: Its cultural adaptation and psychometric properties. Neurological Sciences and Neurophysiology, 37(4), 221. https://doi.org/10.4103/NSN.NSN_30_20

Di Rienzo, F., Martinent, G., Levêque, L., MacIntyre, T., Collet, C., & Guillot, A. (2017). The influence of gate start position on physical performance and anxiety perception in expert BMX athletes. Journal of Sports Sciences, 1-8.  doi: 10.1080/02640414.2017.1303188

Dos Anjos, Typhanie, Aymeric Guillot, Yann Kerautret, Sébastien Daligault, and Franck Di Rienzo. “Corticomotor Plasticity Underlying Priming Effects of Motor Imagery on Force Performance.” Brain Sciences 12, no. 11 (2022): 1537. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12111537

Kim, H., Onate, J. A., Criss, C. R., Simon, J. E., Mischkowski, D., & Grooms, D. R. (2023). The relationship between drop vertical jump action‐observation brain activity and kinesiophobia after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A cross‐sectional fMRI study. Brain and Behavior, e2879. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2879

Kolářová, B., Richards, J., Ondráčková, H., Lippertová, K., Connell, L., & Chohan, A. (2021). The effect of motor imagery on quality of movement when performing reaching tasks in healthy subjects: A proof of concept. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2021.10.004 

Kolbaşı, E. N., Ersoz Huseyinsinoglu, B., Erdoğan, H. A., Çabalar, M., Bulut, N., & Yayla, V. (2020). What are the determinants of explicit and implicit motor imagery ability in stroke patients?: a controlled study. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 37(2), 84-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/08990220.2020.1741344

Marshall, B., & Wright, D. J. (2016). Layered Stimulus Response Training versus Combined Action Observation and Imagery: Effects on Golf Putting Performance and Imagery Ability Characteristics. Journal of Imagery Research in Sport and Physical Activity, 11(1), 35-46. doi: 10.1515/jirspa-2016-0007.

McNeill, E., Ramsbottom, N., Toth, A. J., & Campbell, M. J. (2020). Kinaesthetic imagery ability moderates the effect of an AO+ MI intervention on golf putt performance: A pilot study. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 46, 101610. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029219304406

Meers, R., Nuttall, H. E., & Vogt, S. (2020 – In press, pre-proof). Motor imagery alone drives corticospinal excitability during simultaneous action observation and motor imagery. Cortex. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.01.012

Mendes, P., Marinho, D., & Petrica, J. (2015). Comparison between genders in imagery ability in Portuguese basketball practitioners. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 15, 391-395.

Mendes, P. A. D., Marinho, D. A., Monteiro, D., Cid, L., & Petrica, J. (2019). The comparison of Imagery ability in elite, sub-elite and non-elite swimmers. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte, 19(2), 124-134. https://doi.org/10.6018/cpd.345891

Mendes, P. A., Marinho, D. A., Petrica, J. D., Silveira, P., Monteiro, D., & Cid, L. (2016). Tradução e Validação do Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) com Atletas Portugueses/Translation and Validation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3) with Portuguese Athletes. Motricidade, 12(1), 149.

Nezam, S. E., IsaZadeh, H., Hojati, A., & Zadeh, Z. B. (2014). Comparison Ability of Movement Imagery perspectives in Elite, Sub-Elite and non Elite Athletes. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 8, 712-716.

ÖZCAN, Özlem, Hayriye KUL KARAALİ, Duygu ILGIN, Özgül SOYSAL GÜNDÜZ, and K. A. R. A. Bilge. “Effectiveness of motor imagery training on functionality and quality of life in chronic neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.” Journal of Exercise Therapy and Rehabilitation 6, no. 1 (2019): 1-9.

Paravlić, A., Pišot, S., & Mitić, P. (2018). Validation of the Slovenian version of motor imagery questionnaire 3 (MIQ-3): Promising tool in modern comprehensive rehabilitation practice. Slovenian Journal of Public Health57(4), 201-210. https://doi.org/10.2478/sjph-2018-0025

Sariati, D., Zouhal, H., Hammami, R., Clark, C. C., Nebigh, A., Chtara, M., … & Ounis, O. B. (2021). Association between mental imagery and change of direction performance in young elite soccer players of different maturity status. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.665508

Scott, M., Taylor, S., Chesterton, P., Vogt, S., & Eaves, D. L. (2018). Motor imagery during action observation increases eccentric hamstring force: an acute non-physical intervention. Disability and rehabilitation, 40(12), 1443-1451.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1300333

Seiler, B. D., Monsma, E. V., & Newman-Norlund, R. D. (2015). Biological Evidence of Imagery Abilities: Intraindividual Differences. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 37(4).

Seiler, B. D., Newman-Norlund, R. D., & Monsma, E. V. (2017). Inter-individual neural differences in movement imagery abilities. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30, 153-163.  doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.02.007

Suryotrisongko, H., & Samopa, F. (2015). Evaluating OpenBCI Spiderclaw V1 Headwear’s Electrodes Placements for Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Motor Imagery Application. Procedia Computer Science, 72, 398-405. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2015.12.155

Robin, N., & Blandin, Y. (2021). Imagery ability classification: Commentary on «Kinaesthetic imagery ability moderates the effect of an AO+ MI intervention on golf putt performance: A pilot study» by McNeill et al.(2020). Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 57, 102030. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2021.102030

Robin, N., Coudevylle, G. R., Guillot, A., & Toussaint, L. (2020). French translation and validation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-third version (MIQ-3f). Movement & Sport Sciences-Science & Motricité.  https://doi.org/10.1051/sm/2019035

Trapero-Asenjo, S., Gallego-Izquierdo, T., Pecos-Martín, D., & Nunez-Nagy, S. (2020). Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the Spanish version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3). Musculoskeletal Science and Practice, 51, 102313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msksp.2020.102313

Yunus, U. Ğ. U. R., Coşkun, H., & Şenyurt, A. Y. (2021). The Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3: Reliability and validity study on Turkish sample. SPORMETRE Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 19(4), 145-156. https://doi.org/10.33689/spormetre.938945

Vesković, A., Koropanovski, N., Dopsaj, M., & Jovanović, S. (2019). Effects of a psychological skill training program on anxiety levels in top karate athletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 25(5), 418-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1517-869220192505173969

Williams, S. E. (2019). Comparing movement imagery and action observation as techniques to increase imagery ability. Psychology of Sport and Exercise44, 99-106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.05.005

Williams, S. E., & Cumming, J. (2011). Development and validation of the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, 416-440.

Williams, S. E., Cumming, J., & Edwards, M. G. (2011). Does the functional equivalence between movement imagery, observation, and execution influence imagery ability? Investigating different modes of MIQ-R delivery. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 82, 555-564.

Williams, S. E., Cumming, J., Ntoumanis, N., Nordin-Bates, S. M., Ramsey, R., & Hall, C. (2012). Further validation and development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 621-646.

Williams, S. E., Cooley, S. J., & Cumming, J. (2013). Layered stimulus response training improves motor imagery ability and movement execution. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35, 60-71.

Yoxon, E., Brillinger, M., & Welsh, T. N. (2021). Behavioural indexes of movement imagery ability are associated with the magnitude of corticospinal adaptation following movement imagery training. Brain Research, 1777. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147764

Abstracts published that have used the MIQ-3:

Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2011). Athletes’ imagery ability predicts their use of observational learning. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, S12.

Williams, S. E., Guillot, A., Di Rienzo, F., & Cumming, J. (2013). Comparing measures of motor imagery ability: Self-report vs. mental chronometry. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, S120.

* If you have used the MIQ-3 and would like to add your citation to this list, please email J.Cumming@Bham.ac.uk.

17 thoughts on “MIQ-3

  1. Dear Cumming, I’m just wandering where can I get a English version MIQ-3. I’m very interested in using it for evaluating stroke patients’ MI ability. we will appreciate your kind reply.


    1. Hi Nan. Thanks for your inquiry & great to hear you are interested in using the MIQ-3 in your research. If you send me an email (J.Cumming@Bham.ac.uk), I can email you the questionnaire and its scoring instructions.


  2. Dear Cumming,
    I was wondering if it would be possible to get the English version of MIQ3.
    I would like to use it for my master thesis project on neural correlates of handedness.

    Thank you in adavance,
    Best Regards,
    Monica Crotti


  3. Dear Dr. Jennifer Cumming,
    My name Apanchanit Siripatt. I am a sport psychologist in Thailand. I am teaching at HRH Princess Chulabhorn College and work with Thai athletes. I am interesting to used MIQ-3 for Thai athletes. However, I will translation into Thai version before that. May I translate MIQ-3 into Thai?

    Apanchanit Siripatt.


  4. A very good day ahead and Hi thr Dr.Jennifer Cumming. i was interested to use the MIQ-3 in my research for my last semester in study.. may i have your permission to let me use this ? and how can i get it ??


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