The Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire (FOLQ; Cumming, Clark, Ste-Marie, McCullagh, & Hall, 2005) is a 17-item questionnaire to assess three functions of observational learning:
- Skill OL
- Strategy OL
- Performance OL
It has good psychometric properties, internal reliability, and test-retest reliability.
Published papers that have used the FOLQ:
Cumming, J., Clark, S. E, McCullagh, P., Ste-Marie, D.M., & Hall, C. (2005). The Functions of Observational Learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 517-537.
Bruton, A. M., Shearer, D. A., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2019). Who said “there is no ‘I’in team”? The effects of observational learning content level on efficacy beliefs in groups. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 45, 101563. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2019.101563
Di Rienzo, F., Joassy, P., Kanthack, T., MacIntyre, T. E., Debarnot, U., Blache, Y., … & Guillot, A. (2019). Effects of action observation and action observation combined with motor imagery on maximal isometric strength. Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.08.025
Hancock, D. J., Rymal, A. R., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2010). A triadic comparison of the use of observational learning amongst team sport athletes, coaches, and officials. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, p. 236-241.
Hall, C. R., Munroe-Chandler, K., Cumming, J., Law, B., Ramsey, R., & Murphy, L. (2009). Imagery and observational learning use and their relationship to trait sport confidence. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 237-337.
Law, B., & Hall, C., (2009). Observational learning use and self-efficacy beliefs in adult sport novices. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 263-270.
Law, B., & Hall, C. (2009). The relationship among skill level, age, and golfers’ observational learning use. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 42-58.
Wesch, N., Law, B., & Hall, C. (2007). The use of observational learning by athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30, 219–231.
Williams. S. E., & Cumming, J. (2012a). Athletes’ ease of imaging predicts their imagery and observational learning use. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 362-370.
Williams, S. E., Cumming, J., Ntoumanis, N., Nordin-Bates, S. M., Ramsey, R., & Hall, C. (in press). Further validation and development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.
Abstracts published that have used the FOLQ:
Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2011). Athletes’ imagery ability predicts their use of observational learning. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, S12.
Law, B., Cumming, J., & Hall, C. (2010). Achievement goal profiles and observational learning use: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, S189.
* If you have used the FOLQ and would like to add your citation to this list, please email J.Cumming@Bham.ac.uk.