The Functions of Observational Learning Questionnaire (FOLQ; Cumming, Clark, Ste-Marie, McCullagh, & Hall, 2005) is a 17-item questionnaire to assess three functions of observational learning:

  • Skill OL
  • Strategy OL
  • Performance OL

It has good psychometric properties, internal reliability, and test-retest reliability.

The MIQ-3 is available in English, and has also been translated into Korean.

Published papers that have used the FOLQ:

Cumming, J., Clark, S. E, McCullagh, P., Ste-Marie, D.M., & Hall, C. (2005). The Functions of Observational Learning. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 517-537.

Bruton, A. M., Shearer, D. A., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2019). Who said “there is no ‘I’in team”? The effects of observational learning content level on efficacy beliefs in groups. Psychology of Sport and Exercise45, 101563.

Di Rienzo, F., Joassy, P., Kanthack, T., MacIntyre, T. E., Debarnot, U., Blache, Y., … & Guillot, A. (2019). Effects of action observation and action observation combined with motor imagery on maximal isometric strength. Neuroscience.

Dos Anjos, Typhanie, Aymeric Guillot, Yann Kerautret, Sébastien Daligault, and Franck Di Rienzo. “Corticomotor Plasticity Underlying Priming Effects of Motor Imagery on Force Performance.” Brain Sciences 12, no. 11 (2022): 1537.

Hancock, D. J., Rymal, A. R., & Ste-Marie, D. M. (2010). A triadic comparison of the use of observational learning amongst team sport athletes, coaches, and officials. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, p. 236-241.

Hall, C. R., Munroe-Chandler, K., Cumming, J., Law, B., Ramsey, R., & Murphy, L. (2009). Imagery and observational learning use and their relationship to trait sport confidence. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 237-337.

Kwon, T., Shin, S., & Shin, M. (2022). The Effect of Observational Learning on Self-Efficacy by Sport Competition Condition, Performance Level of Team Members, and Whether You Win or Lose. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(16), 10148.

Law, B., & Hall, C., (2009). Observational learning use and self-efficacy beliefs in adult sport novices. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10, 263-270.

Law, B., & Hall, C. (2009). The relationship among skill level, age, and golfers’ observational learning use. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 42-58.

Lee, S., Kwon, S., & Ahn, J. (2021). The Effect of Modeling on Self-Efficacy and Flow State of Adolescent Athletes Through Role Models. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 661557.

Sotoodeh, M. S., Rasool, H., Arabameri, E., & Zeidabadi, R. (2015). The effect of skill types and competition level on the functions of observational learning in athletes. Psicología Educativa, 21(1), 39-45.

St. Germain, L., Rymal, A. M., & Hancock, D. J. (2019). Coaches’ and Officials’ Self-Reporting of Observational Learning. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 7(2), 232-241.

Wesch, N., Law, B., & Hall, C. (2007). The use of observational learning by athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30, 219–231.

Williams. S. E., & Cumming, J. (2012a). Athletes’ ease of imaging predicts their imagery and observational learning use. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 362-370.

Williams, S. E., Cumming, J., Ntoumanis, N., Nordin-Bates, S. M., Ramsey, R., & Hall, C. (in press). Further validation and development of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.

Abstracts published that have used the FOLQ:

Cumming, J., & Williams, S. E. (2011). Athletes’ imagery ability predicts their use of observational learning. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 33, S12.

Law, B., Cumming, J., & Hall, C. (2010). Achievement goal profiles and observational learning use: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32, S189.

Law, B., & Gregg, M. (2019). Imagery and modeling influences on team sport athletes’ collective efficacy. Journal of Exercise, Movement, and Sport (SCAPPS refereed abstracts repository), 51(1), 120-120.

* If you have used the FOLQ and would like to add your citation to this list, please email

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